ticular user interface with this system. If an organiza-
tion or a user prefers or requires a special display, they
can still access the system services and data and use
their own display. They can have it designed or set up
any way that meets their organizational or user defined
requirements. CSS is the first open-source true service-
oriented architecture I have seen that has been opera-
tionally deployed and being used operationally.”
Bowe said CSS is an unclassified system.
“The whole concept of this is to share information
across components and agencies within the U.S. government, down to the local law enforcement level. The
information that your sensor produces is brought in
and is made available to whomever you’ve decided is
entitled to have it. We are essentially creating a situational fusion center capability, where various data elements are transformed into information and subsequently being able to share it across the CSS enterprise
for all those entitled to see and use,” he said.
“If a port or facility has radar that’s operationally relevant, all we need is an Internet connection to bring it
into the enterprise. If it happens to be a new solid-state
Terma radar, for example, it can be readily connected
because they’ve already incorporated the interface for
connecting to the CSS enterprise,” Bowe said. “If a port
authority or system owner agrees, they can grant control of those radars or cameras to an authorized agency
like the [U.S. Coast Guard or Customs and Border
Protection] to control those sensors on an ad hoc basis.
That is one of the next steps in the operationalization
of the system. We have a standard interface control for
radar and cameras, and all we have to do is adapt the
specific model sensor to it one time.
“The U.S. government can’t afford to install a radar
every 20 miles up and down the coast, along with a
bunch of cameras,” he added. “But the good news is that
there are already a lot of these sensors out there in the
coastal maritime environment, from port authorities to
the harbormasters to marinas to the Coast Guard’s Vessel
Traffic Services. We don’t support and maintain those
sensors, but if they have a maritime impact, we would
like to integrate them into this network.”
The Big Picture
Late last year, the DHS S&T CSS was deployed to the
Customs and Border Protection Air and Marine
Operations Center (AMOC) in Riverside, Calif., the U.S.
Coast Guard’s Sector Los Angeles and the S&T Maritime
Security Technology Pilot at SRI in St. Petersburg.
The AMOC has a solid picture of what is in the air,
but less so on the water.
“We just celebrated our 25th anniversary,” said AMOC
public information officer Tina Pendell. “We can display
up to 50,000 tracks on the screen at one time — com-
pared with 6,000 tracks back in the late ’80s — and that
includes commercial, military and general aviation. We
have most of the DoD [Department of Defense] and FAA
[Federal Aviation Adminstration] radars fed into our sys-
tem, as well as those from Canada and some from Mexico.
Our name says ‘air’ and ‘marine,’ but we’re mostly air, and
we want to get more visibility of the maritime domain.”
“In the air, the military is looking for targets that are
high and fast. Here at AMOC, we have full air domain
awareness, but are watching for low and slow general
aviation air targets. We’re looking to CSS to give us the
same capability for the maritime domain. On the water,
we’re looking for those noncompliant targets just like
we are in the air,” said Steve Savala, a detection en-
forcement officer at the AMOC.
To demonstrate how the CCS would work, DHS S&T
set up a SCANTER 5202 surface surveillance radar provided by Terma North America at Carlsbad, Calif., linked
to SRI at St. Petersburg over a cellular connection.
“We were getting a nice picture here at the AMOC,”
Savala said. “Within minutes, we were tracking targets.
We expected a range of about 15 to 20 miles, but we’ve
The demonstration showed the ease of integrating
existing sensors and networks into CSS to create a regional and national picture, and how that data can help maintain the big picture at a command center like AMOC.
On a smaller scale, a Caribbean country like the Turks
and Caicos Islands can be faced with a significant maritime security challenge. But as with the CSS, technology
can make its security forces more effective and efficient.
33 WWW.SEAPOWERMAGAZINE.ORG SEAPOWER / OCTOBER 2013
The Air and Marine Operations Center at March Air Reserve
Base, Riverside, Calif., shown here on March 23, was one of
several sites that received the Department of Homeland
Security Science and Technology Directorate-developed
Coastal Surveillance System last year to improve its monitoring capabilities. Prior to receiving the system, the center had
a solid picture of what was in the air, but less so on the water.